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Majority of rashes are benign and not serious. Rashes may be caused by certain disease conditions, germs, irritants or as a result of the use of medicine. Most of them disappear without any specific medical attention.

However, there are some rashes that are a harbinger of serious illnesses.

Our recomendation is if your child develops a rash, speak with your pediatrician or contact our office for an appointment.

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Hives (Urticaria)

Hives (Urticaria)

Hives are an allergic reaction to substances such as food, medicines, insect bites, plants, etc.

These usually appear as

  • Red, raised lesions with marked swelling that are often itchy
  • Smooth or slightly bumpy to touch
  • Rash on one part of the body
  • Spots or solid red rashes

Other symptoms and signs

  • Difficult or rapid breathing
  • Rapid swelling

When to Consult Your Child’s Doctor

Consult immediately if:

  • Difficult or rapid breathing
  • Bright red and tender to the touch
  • Spreading red streaks
  • Looks like a burn
  • Swelling of the lips and particularly the throat

Consult afterwards:

  • Bothersome itching

What You Can Do

  • If there are associated problems, like breathing, the adequacy of the airway and breathing must be assessed immediately.
  • It is important to try and determine if there are things that cause problems such as drugs, eggs, milk, chocolate, shellfish, cheese, nuts, pollens and insect bites.
  • Wash the area of the rash once thoroughly with soap to remove any remaining irritants, thereafter avoid soap to the area.
  • If the itching is bothersome, you may give a dose of Benadryl as directed or use 1% hydrocortisone cream to area as directed.
  • Apply ice or cold compress to area for 20 minutes every 34 hours to help prevent itching.

Visiting Your Pediatrician

  • A visit is required if rash spreads or becomes worse in appearance.
  • If rash lasts over 1 week
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Thrush is a very common infection in infants. It appears as white, thick, cheesy, irregularly shaped patches. It coats the inner surfaces of the mouth, including the gums, lips, and sometimes the tongue. Usually, it adheres to the mouth and cannot be washed away or wiped off easily like milk. (Note that a white film on the tongue is normal and does not usually indicate thrush infection). Thrush may cause mild discomfort to the child.


Thrush is caused by a common yeast called Candida. This yeast grows rapidly on the lining of the mouth in areas abraded by prolonged sucking (as when a child sleeps with a bottle or pacifier). A large pacifier or nipple can also injure the lining of the child’s mouth. Thrush may also occur when your child has recently been taking an antibiotic.

Thrush is not contagious since it does not invade normal tissue.

However, the fungus can also cause rashes, especially in the diaper area

What you should do


If your suspect your child has thrush, call your pediatrician, or contact our office

Treatment is most commonly with Nystatin, an oral suspension, and available by prescription. It comes in a bottle with a dropper. You can use 1 ml for each side of the mouth (a total of 2 ml per dose). Squirt it directly on the white patches 4 times a day. You can also rub the medication on the spots with a cotton swab, or with gauze wrapped around your finger. Apply it after meals, or at least do not feed your baby at least 30 minutes after the application, or as directed by your doctor.

If you are breastfeeding, also apply Nystatin on your nipples several times, as directed.

If your child has a diaper rash at the same time, it may be due to the same yeast. Request Nystatin cream and apply it to the area as directed.

It generally takes about a week to clear up. You should treat for at least 5-7 days, or for 2-3 days after all signs of infection are gone. Thrush commonly recurs at some point.


  • Decrease sucking time to about 20 minutes per feeding. Prolonged sucking may make a child more prone to thrush. If sucking on a nipple is painful for your child, use a cup temporarily.
  • Restrict pacifier use to bedtime.
  • Sterilize any pacifiers and bottle nipples daily, appropriately.

Call your pediatrician if…

  • Your child refuses to eat.
  • The thrush is getting worse even though your child is undergoing treatment.
  • The thrush lasts more than 10 days.
  • You have other concerns or questions.
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Sore Throat (Pharyngitis)

Sore Throat (Pharyngitis)


Sore throat or pharyngitis, is a feeling of pain or discomfort in the throat.

In children too young to talk, a sore throat may be suspected if they refuse to eat or begin to cry during feeding.


A sore throat may be caused by a variety of germs. The predominant causes are infections by viruses. It can also be caused by bacteria or a fungus. Other causes are allergies, with post-nasal drainage, irritation from smoke or chemical fumes, and trauma.


Typical symptoms include pain, swelling, redness, a tickle or lump in the throat, and cough. There may be swollen glands in the neck. The child may also have a fever or headache, and some vomit. Children with a really bad sore throat may drool or have trouble swallowing and talking. A few develop a typical rash associated with, especially if it is caused by strep (Streptococcus).


If the doctor suspects a treatable infection, you may receive antibiotics, if bacterial, or some other appropriate remedy.

Other measures that may be taken to relieve symptoms are described below.

What you should do

  • Children over the age of 6 years old can gargle with mouthwash or warm salt water (1teaspoon salt in 1 cup water) several times a day. Encourage them NOT TO SWALLOW the mouthwash or salt water.
  • Children over 4 years of age can suck on hard candy this may ease the pain.
  • You also can take over-the-counter medications, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen for fever or pain in the throat. Make sure to follow all instructions for any medications exactly as directed.
  • If your doctor has prescribed antibiotics, finish all the medication even if you feel well. If you don’t, the infection may return.
  • Use a cool mist humidifier (vaporizer) to increase air moisture and help relieve the tight, dry feeling in your throat. Do not use hot steam.
  • Do not drink acidic products like orange juice, apple juice, grape juice or cherry juice for a few days to prevent more irritation to the throat.
  • You may be more comfortable only eating soft foods or cool drinking liquids.

Call Your Doctor If…

  • Pain in the throat gets worse or is not better in a few days.
  • Your child develops a high fever.
  • Your child develops a rash.

Seek Care Immediately If…

  • Your child has trouble breathing or swallowing.
  • Your child has a really bad throat pain
  • Your child start to drool.
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Newborn Screening

Newborn Screening

Government regulations require all newborn babies to be screened for various genetic and metabolic conditions. Your newborn child will most likely have this test in the hospital after birth and before you are discharged home, except if you decline to have the test done.

Find below various sources of information regarding this important process. If you have any questions or concerns, please call your Pediatrician, or contact our office.


Newborn Screening

Companies offering expanded newborn screening

Expanded Newborn Screening at Our Practice

Internet Resources

Georgia Newborn Screening Program

Screening, Technology And Research in Genetics (STAR-G) Project

Save Babies Through Screening Foundation

National Library of Medicine Genetics Home Reference

National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center

March of Dimes

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